The Atomic Era is used to describe the period from the splitting of the Atom in 1938 to the first Lunar landings in 1969. An age of unparalleled scientific progress (although not necessarily for the good) and, in particularly of the start of the Space Age.
Sputnik 1, the earth's first artificial satellite, was launched by the Soviet Union in 1957 and four years later Soviet Cosmonaut, Yuri Gargarin became the first human in space. But arguably the Space Age reached its peak when the USA put men on the moon in 1969.
It was an era of space and rocket-inspired designs, bright colours and a lot of use of the exciting new material, plastic.